Gomal University Journal of Research 2023-12-31T09:17:17Pakistan Standard Time Prof. Dr.Muhammad Zahid Awan Open Journal Systems <p align="justify">Gomal University Journal of Research is H.E.C recognized "Y" category multidisciplinary journal that publishes articles in Social Sciences domain.&nbsp;In order to facilitate authors and to meet the HEC's criteria, GUJR has been shifted its Editorial Proceedings online via Open Journal System since January 2019.&nbsp;</p> <div class="page">&nbsp;</div> <p>&nbsp;</p> CYBER STRAIN: EXPLORING ADVERSE MENTAL HEALTH EFFECTS OF THE PROBLEMATIC INTERNET USAGE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS 2023-12-31T09:17:15Pakistan Standard Time Fazal Ur Rehman Anwar Khan Muhammad Anwar <p>Social Networking Technologies have become an integral part of daily life, particularly among adolescents. However, the positive aspects have been overshadowed by negative ones. The recent studies indicate that university students, mainly during COVID-19, frequently utilize internet technologies excessively, leading to adverse effects on their mental health. Since there is little empirical research on this topic in rural Pakistan, so little is known about it. This study aims to determine association amid problematic internet use and mental health issues among students. Using a cross-sectional design, quantitative data were obtained by using self-administered questionnaire. Population of this study consisted of 367 students from three universities located in the southern in Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The data was analysed inferential statistics. Results revealed a positive link between problematic internet usage and mental health issues, whereas this link was mediated by the meta-cognition and life-events. This was first research of its kind on mental health of the adolescents in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Its findings represent an important contribution to current body of knowledge. The individual, institutional and policy implications of the results are substantial</p> 2023-12-29T14:22:34Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHERS ON GOVERNMENT SCHOOL PRIVATIZATION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN 2023-12-31T09:17:15Pakistan Standard Time Ayesha Kanwal Farrukh Kamran Shahid Rafiq <p>The educational privatization is the global phenomenon with far-reaching<br>implications, and its impact on teachers in government schools within the<br>context of Punjab, Pakistan, is a subject of dominant importance. Research<br>investigates the effects of privatization upon teachers' job security, salaries,<br>and job satisfaction. Study includes a mixed-methods approach, combining<br>survey data from 430 teachers with in-depth interviews of 25 teachers. The<br>results reveal that educational privatization in Punjab presents uncertainties<br>about teachers' job security and contractual terms, reduces their autonomy<br>and creates financial stress. Thus, on the positive side, teachers experience<br>improvements in resources and teaching environments. However, impact<br>of privatization on the teachers' job satisfaction is complex, with a blend of<br>positive &amp; negative emotions. The study underlines the need for balanced<br>approach in the privatization policies, recognizing the teachers' multifaceted<br>experiences. The policymakers must ensure that teachers' well-being and<br>economic stability are not compromised. Findings donate to understanding<br>of the impact of privatization on teachers in a specific context and call for<br>further research to explore long-term effects and the perspectives of other<br>stakeholders.</p> 2023-12-29T14:28:22Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## NEXUS AMONG STAKEHOLDER PRESSURE, ACCESS TO GREEN FINANCE AND GREEN INVESTMENTS: A MEDIATION MODERATION MODEL 2023-12-31T09:17:15Pakistan Standard Time Yasir Hayat Mughal Adil Riaz Aamir Sohail <p>Sustainable development goals attainment relies significantly on the green investments (GI), making it important factor. In this context, environmental awareness (EA) emerges as a potentially effective approach to accomplish these goals. This present study empirically investigates the impact of vital resources of EA, i.e., stakeholders pressure (SP) and access to green finance (AGF). Moreover, the study examines the mediating impact of EA between these resources and GI and the moderation impact of top management commitment (MC). In this regard, data were gathered from 315 managers of manufacturing firms in developing country. The study employs PLS-SEM to examine the relationships among the constructs. Thus, results provide significant information in reaching the conclusion and making decisions. The findings show that the SP and AGF are positively related to EA. The findings also confirmed the mediating role of EA between SP, AGF and GI. Moreover, the results confirmed the moderating role of MC between SP, AGF &amp; EA. Consequently, the study offer recommendations for regulators in the formulation of regulations pertaining to the attainment of sustainable development goals.&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## GREENING BOTTOM LINE & TECH-DRIVEN SUSTAINABILITY: FINANCIAL TECHNOLOGY JOURNEY CREATING BETTER ENVIRONMENT 2023-12-31T09:17:16Pakistan Standard Time Sanam Tehseen Abid Hussain Aqeela Riaz <p>The main purpose of this investigation is to examine influence of financial technology (FT) on Corporate Environmental Performance. In addition, the present study examines green finance (GF) and green innovation (GI) as mediating variables between FT and CEP. Lastly, this study examines the moderating effect of the Resource Commitment (RC) between FT and CEP. The population of the study, comprised of managers working in different manufacturing companies in Pakistan, scholars used adopted questioner to collect data from respondents. A structural equational model was used to test the hypothesis of the study. The results indicate that FA has positively associate with CEP. The findings support the notion that GF and GI are the mediator between FA and CEP. The results confirm that RC moderates the relationship between FA &amp; CEP. This study provides recommendations for regulators in formulating regulations that align with achievement of the technological goals of the firms. This study stands out as first to investigate the observed relationships. Research emphasizes the urgent need for the incorporation of novel technology, environmentally-friendly initiatives, and financial mechanisms into organization strategies so as to facilitate corporate environmental performance.&nbsp;</p> 2023-12-29T14:44:21Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANALYSIS OF WAYS AND MEANS FOR ENHANCING LITERACY & EDUCATION FACILITATION IN INACCESSIBLE AREAS THROUGH E-LEARNING 2023-12-31T09:17:16Pakistan Standard Time Javed Iqbal Irfan Ullah Muhammad Kaleem <p>This research study analyses the ways and means of enhancing the literacy and education facilitation in inaccessible areas over e-learning. The study explores current state of education and literacy in remote and inaccessible areas and the potential of e-learning to provide access to education. The basic objectives of study were to explore the ways and means to enhance literacy and education facilitation in inaccessible areas through e-learning and also to investigate the challenges faced by learners and educators in remote areas with limited access to educational resources and potential of e-learning to overcome these challenges. Due to the qualitative nature of the study, the available literature was analyzed by using coding followed by thematic analysis and discussion. The study highlighted key factors that contribute to the successful implementation of e-learning in remote areas, including infrastructure, internet connectivity, availability of digital devices, and digital literacy skills. The research findings suggest that e-learning can significantly improve literacy &amp; education in inaccessible areas by providing access to high-quality educational resources &amp; facilitating remote learning. Further, study recommends the implementation of e-learning programs as a means of enhancing literacy and education facilitation in the inaccessible areas.</p> 2023-12-29T14:49:00Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLBEING & LOCUS OF CONTROL IN YOUNG ADULTS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN 2023-12-31T09:17:16Pakistan Standard Time Farhan Kamrani Nabila Kamrani Shumaila Kamrani <p>Psychological wellbeing (PWB) is a person’s ideal disposition of mental and emotional functioning, marked by positive emotions, satisfaction, serenity, resilience &amp; purpose. These aspects are often influenced by locus of control (LOC), which enhances self-awareness &amp; awareness of intrinsic capabilities. As LOC is a trait, knowing its links with PWB will illustrate the contribution of more permanent aspects of the personality in PWB. Most studies have not examined these important variables together. This research aims to bridge this knowledge gap and uncover predictive relationship between these factors and hypothesized that LOC would be correlated with to PWB. To conduct a cross-sectional survey a sample of 400 young adult participants from University of Karachi was drawn. Correlation that links LOC &amp; various facets of psychological wellbeing is insignificant, except for correlation of internal LOC &amp; personal growth, where there is slight negative correlation, as higher scores of the measure of LOC meant higher degrees of internal locus of control &amp; vice versa. This result shows that the more external locus of control the more personal growth. This study sheds light on interesting perspective about the impact of perceived internal LOC on specific aspects of psychological well-being. These findings open new avenues for further research in this field.</p> 2023-12-29T14:53:28Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## EXPLORING THE COMPETENCIES OF ENGLISH TEACHERS IN RURAL BALOCHISTAN 2023-12-31T09:17:16Pakistan Standard Time Sanober Wahid Amjad Reba Khadija Jaffar <p>The concept of teacher competency is one of the most dynamic notions to transform fundamental education. The teaching English focuses on lifelong learning, social-cultural and emotional competencies, and fostering lifelong learning for students to effectively communicate and interact with their second language. The present study aims to explore the primary school English teacher competency. To explore teachers’ competencies Exploratory research design was used to conduct the study, to collect qualitative data interviews were conducted with 50 teachers. Collected data was analyzed qualitatively through thematic analysis. Study revealed that teachers lack ICT competencies, however, teachers possess lifelong learning and social- emotional competencies. The study aims to enhance instruction efficiency and capacity development. Thus, It provides insights into English teacher competencies and their impact on learning and teaching. In this regard, it is recommended that schools provide ICT equipment to enhance teaching and learning process and to develop teachers’ competencies. Further, the capacity development sessions were also recommended for teachers to develop other competencies.</p> 2023-12-29T17:00:25Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## A STUDY ON AFGHANISTAN INTRICACIES: IMPACT AND CONSIDERATIONS FOR PAKISTAN 2023-12-31T09:17:16Pakistan Standard Time Shahid Nawaz Malik <p>Afghanistan's unique geopolitical location at crossroads of Central, East, and South Asia, along with its historical significance, has made it a focal point for global powers. Post-Soviet era, it served as a buffer against Russian influence. The abrupt U.S. withdrawal in August 2021 disrupted regional stability, allowing the terrorist groups like Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) to thrive. Taliban, now in control, faces internal challenges with ISIS targeting both civilians and Taliban leadership. The Taliban's reluctance to confront other terrorist factions jeopardizes not only Afghan peace but also regional stability, impacting projects like OBOR &amp; CPEC. The Afghanistan's instability directly affects neighboring Pakistan, emphasizing the interconnectedness of the internal Afghan security and Pakistan's peace. For enduring peace, concerted efforts from regional and international actors are imperative to address Afghanistan's internal security and stabilize the region. The current study is qualititative in nature and discussion the leading issues related to the Afghanistan intricacies and its allied impact and considerations for Pakistan. This study addressed these challenging issues and its implications for Pakistan in prevailing situations in order to reach conclusion and offer recommendations.</p> 2023-12-29T17:04:59Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## WISDOM INHERENT IN MYSTICAL PHILOSOPHY: T CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF SHAMS TABRIZI'S FIRST SIX RULES OF SPIRITUAL LOVE FROM THE FORTY RULES OF LOVE BY ELIF SHAFAK 2023-12-31T09:17:17Pakistan Standard Time Shahnila Tariq Syed Kumail Abdi <p>Shafak’s The Forty Rules of Love captures a strong association between the spiritual love and the Sufi’s love. Numerous studies investigated the various phenomenon in the Shafak’s novel, however, no one focused on Shams’ wisdom behind the rules presented. This study aims to explore the wisdom inherent in Mystical Philosophy, through analysing Shams’ first six rules of spiritual love. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) method, first six rules of the God’s love are identified as: (1) We see God as a direct reflection of ourselves (2) Heart is the primary source of truth &amp; God (3) There are four levels of insight (4) God is not confined to one place (5) Intellect and love are composed of different materials (6) Do not ever take words, explore meanings through silence. The mirror, fearless &amp; pure heart, compassion, soul, spiritual insight, universal, timeless knowledge, patience and silence are found as the chief components of spiritual love. The study provides the significant information in extracting the desired information and reaching the conclusion. These results are thus helpful in generalizing the outcomes in particular context.</p> 2023-12-29T17:15:24Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## AN ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN-AFGHANISTAN RELATIONS: FROM PEACE PROCESS TO TALIBAN TAKEOVER (2021) 2023-12-31T09:17:17Pakistan Standard Time Asifa Khalid Malik Akhtar Hussain Khalid Mahmood <p>Afghanistan as a focal state for super powers remained a war- torn territory since 19th century. Its geopolitical importance can’t be ignored as country connects South Asia to Central Asia. Afghanistan as a neighbouring state of Pakistan is also very significant for India. Peaceful/violence circumstances in Afghanistan have immense effect on Pakistan. Pakistan had to pay high cost of the war against terror in the Afghanistan. Despite extending of full cooperation to USA, Pakistan was identified as an untrustworthy state, as US blamed Pakistan that all the terrorists operating in Pakistan are the state sponsored terrorists. On the other hand, Pakistan as the US ally cannot be trustworthy for Taliban. During peace process, paradoxically US accepted Pakistan as a vital mediator between the Taliban and US. Pakistan remained US ally, whenever US needed. On other hand, Pakistan may have to pay heavy cost after US withdrawal. After Taliban take over, Pakistan has started to deliver humanitarian aid to Afghanistan &amp; provided shelter to Afghan refugees. China, the emerging power of the world, has taken initiatives to enhance with Afghanistan. Once again it is China which needed Pakistan for successfully attaining its aim. Pakistan eminence in South Asian region cannot be neglected. Regional peace and stability are vital for Pakistan’s own viability and prosperity.</p> 2023-12-29T17:20:29Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement##