Gomal University Journal of Research 2024-06-30T05:53:42Pakistan Standard Time Prof. Dr.Muhammad Zahid Awan Open Journal Systems <p align="justify">Gomal University Journal of Research is H.E.C recognized "Y" category multidisciplinary journal that publishes articles in Social Sciences domain.&nbsp;In order to facilitate authors and to meet the HEC's criteria, GUJR has been shifted its Editorial Proceedings online via Open Journal System since January 2019.&nbsp;</p> <div class="page">&nbsp;</div> <p>&nbsp;</p> THE IMPACT OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND DIGITAL LITERACY ON INNOVATION CAPABILITY: MEDIATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE FOR INNOVATION 2024-06-30T05:53:40Pakistan Standard Time Mohammad Mohsen Liaqat Sana-ur- Rehman Hafiz Ahmed Ullah <p>The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of transformational leadership &amp; digital literacy of leaders on innovation capacity of organization while considering mediating effect of organizational culture for innovation. The data were collected from the sample of manufacturing SME’s leaders and employees using a structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. The study finds that transformational leadership &amp; digital literacy positively influence the innovation capability. Nevertheless, organizational culture for innovation was determined to mediate this relationship and to enhance diverse effects of transformational leadership &amp; digital literacy on innovation outcomes. These observations focus the need for refining organizational culture that supports creativity and innovation, and enhancing leadership skills and digital literacy of leaders for organizational innovation. This study adds to existing literature on leadership, digital literacy, organizational culture &amp; innovation capability, providing guidance for managers and policymakers about the research issues so as to enhance innovation efforts within their organizations toward desired success.</p> 2024-06-29T06:11:07Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## EXAMINING THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF BRAND IMAGE AND PERCEIVED QUALITY TO CUSTOMER LOYALTY THROUGH SATISFACTION AND TRUST 2024-06-30T05:53:40Pakistan Standard Time Basharat Raza Aamir Sohail Shrafat Ali Sair <p>This research aims to evaluate interconnection between brand trust, brand image, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and perceived quality among 350 reputable brands customers. Thus, study proposes the use of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine these constructs and their relationship in the context of customer loyalty. The analysis of internal consistency reveals that all constructs are highly reliable with Cronbach’s Alpha values greater than 0.70. Validity analysis, using the Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio (HTMT), ensures distinctiveness amid constructs. SEM results show significant positive effects: brand trust and brand image both enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty, while the perceived quality positively influences both satisfaction &amp; loyalty. Moreover, customer satisfaction mediates the impact of brand image and perceived quality on customer loyalty. Additionally, the study examines moderating variables, finding that some significantly affect customer loyalty. These findings provide actionable insights for the managers in manufacturing SMEs, emphasizing importance of building brand trust and image, ensuring high perceived quality and fostering the customer satisfaction to cultivate the customer loyalty.</p> 2024-06-29T00:00:00Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES & CHALLENGES IN THE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: INSIGHTS FROM SAUDI ARABIA 2024-06-30T05:53:40Pakistan Standard Time Dalal Aldhilan Shahid Rafiq Ayesha Afzal <p>Early childhood education is vital for children's foundational development. This study explores innovative pedagogical approaches in ECE settings in the Saudi Arabia, focusing on practices, challenges &amp; strategies for improvement. Using thematic analysis of 60 semi-structured interviews with ECE teachers in Jeddah, key themes were identified like, play-based learning, technology integration, culturally responsive pedagogy, and collaborative learning. Play -based activities foster creativity &amp; social skills; technology aids personalized learning &amp; digital literacy; culturally reactive pedagogy supports inclusivity and identity formation; and collaborative learning enhances teamwork and communication skills. However, educators face challenges such as the limited resources, inadequate professional development, traditional cultural norms, &amp; administrative constraints. Recommendations include increased resource investment, enhanced the professional development, community &amp; parental engagement, flexible policies &amp; the ongoing research. Therefore, addressing these challenges can foster environment conducive to educational innovation in Saudi Arabian ECE, contributing towards global discussions on effective educational practices.</p> 2024-06-29T06:21:05Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE EFFECT OF MICROFINANCE BANK LOAN ON PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA 2024-06-30T05:53:41Pakistan Standard Time Abass Adekunle Adewale Abass Adedolapo Adeyemo <p>This paper evaluates the impact of microfinance bank loans on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Osun State, Nigeria. The SMEs encounter major difficulties when trying to obtain financing, which hampers their growth and contributions to the economy. Microfinance banks are crucial as they provide essential financial services tailored for SMEs, facilitating economic growth. A descriptive survey design was used so as to collect data from 150 randomly selected SME operators across various sectors in the Osun State. The findings show that microfinance loans significantly enhance SME performance leading to increased productivity, employment, and business expansion. However, high-interest rates &amp; stringent loan conditions present substantial challenges that hinder optimal loan utilization. Study concludes that while microfinance bank loans positively influence SME growth, addressing these barriers could improve effectiveness &amp; sustainability in SMEs. Enhancing loan terms could boost microfinance banks role in fostering long-term economic improvement in the region. This study empirically links the microfinance bank loans to SME performance, contributing to the literature on SME financing and economic development in Nigeria.</p> 2024-06-29T06:29:07Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## AN INVESTIGATION ON IMPACT OF TRADE OPENNESS & BUDGET DEFICIT ON PAKISTAN'S PUBLIC DEBT: ARDL APPROACH TO COINTEGRATION 2024-06-30T05:53:41Pakistan Standard Time Khalid Mahmood Zaffar Kashif Saleem <p>In this empirical research, the purpose was to investigate the impact of trade openness and budget deficits on public debt in Pakistan. In this regard, data was examined spanning from 1975 to 2020. To map both long-run and short -run interactions, we used the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) method of co-integration along with ECM approaches. The results show that variables such as public debt, budget deficit, trade openness, and inflation have long- and short-term co-integration. Also, trade openness’s coefficient’s negative sign with value of -0.759 confirms negative relationship between public debt, trade openness and shows that a 1% upsurge in trade openness will bring a 75.9% decrease in public debt’s growth in Pakistan. While budget deficit and inflation both possess a positive sign of coefficients and a positive link with public debt, the coefficient of budget deficit is 0.498, which depicts that a 1% escalation in budget deficit will lead to a rise in public debt of 49.8 percent. In conclusion, Pakistan's national debt is rising due to budget deficit &amp; inflation, but it is falling due to trade openness. To reduce budget deficit, government should balance domestic &amp; external debt so as to sustain desired position. So, it is suggested the government actively trade internationally to minimize the public debt.</p> 2024-06-29T00:00:00Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## INVESTIGATING THE ASSESSMENT EXPERIENCES OF DISTANCE LEARNERS: A CROSS- SECTIONAL SURVEY 2024-06-30T05:53:41Pakistan Standard Time Mubeshera Tufail <p>The purpose of the study was to analyze assessment experiences of students enrolled in distance education programs. All students enrolled in graduate program were the population for this study. Sample of the study consisted of 518 distance learners selected through stratified random sampling technique. Assessment Experience Questionnaire (AEQ) was used to collect data from students. The results of study were reported in terms of nine sub-constructs of the study. The study concluded a statistically significant difference among students on quantity of effort to do well on the assessment with higher mean score for the students of 3rd semester and male students. The quantity and quality of feedback on the performance was experienced more positively by female students &amp; student who have self-reported about their non-disability. The results provide significant information in order to reach the conclusion &amp; make suitable decision about the research issues. Similarly, some appropriate recommendation have been extracted from the conclusion of study. Therefore, it was recommended to consider the characteristics of distance learners, their needs and experiences to design effective and efficient assessment system for their learning.</p> 2024-06-29T06:49:33Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## CAREGIVER BURDEN: UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF NATURE’S LOVE AND SALUTOGENESIS IN ELDERLY SPOUSES WITH CHRONIC ILLNESS 2024-06-30T05:53:41Pakistan Standard Time Aroob Sohail Shahnila Tariq <p>The study was conducted to find relationship between nature, Salutogenesis &amp; caregiver burden in older spouses with chronic illness. It was hypothesized that there is likely to be relationship amid nature, Salutogenesis &amp; caregiver burden in older spouses with chronic illness. It was hypothesized that nature and Salutogenesis are likely to predict caregiver burden in older spouses with chronic illness. The quantitative method was used to collect the data from 120 participants. The Love for Nature Scale (Sohail &amp; Tariq, 2023), Salutogenesis Wellness Promotion Scale (SWPS) (Becker et al., 2015), &amp; Spousal Caregiving Burden Assessing Scale (BAS; Thara et al., 1998) were the respective scales used in this research. This study will offer indigenous basis for researchers to identify links between the relatedness of Love for Nature, Salutogenesis and Spousal Caregiver Burden in the Older adults. Findings showed negative link between nature, Salutogenesis &amp; caregiver burden. Duration of chronic illness negatively predicts caregiver burden whereas seasonal nature &amp; Salutogenesis positively predict caregiver burden. The findings of research are beneficial for the counselling of older adults, especially the ones who are providing care to their spouses.</p> 2024-06-29T06:54:52Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## CRITICAL EVALUATION OF SEHAT SAHULAT CARD AND STRATEGIZING SEHAT SCHOOL INITIATIVE: LESSONS LEARNT AND WAY FORWARD 2024-06-30T05:53:41Pakistan Standard Time Syed Habib Ul Hassan Gillani <p>The Sehat Sahulat Card is a government initiative aimed at providing health insurance to underprivileged families in Pakistan. Its primary objective is to improve access to quality healthcare services, thereby reducing the financial burden of medical expenses on the low-income households. The Sehat School Initiative is a proposed extension of this program, focusing on promoting health education and preventive healthcare practices among school children. This study utilizes the qualitative approach by incorporating qualitative data. Quantitative data is gathered from government health databases, insurance claims records, and surveys conducted among beneficiaries of Sehat Sahulat Card. The results provide significant information in reaching the conclusion. Sehat Sahulat Card has significantly increased access to healthcare services of underprivileged families, leading toward reduction in out-of-pocket medical expenses. Key challenges identified are logistical issues in card distribution, limited awareness amid potential beneficiaries, and constraints in healthcare infrastructure coupled with financial crunch. It is advised that there is a need to strengthen healthcare setup and capacity-building initiatives by pouring in more finances to support the increased demand generated by Sehat Sahulat Card.</p> 2024-06-29T07:06:47Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## TO WHAT EXTENT WORKPLACE HAZING AND KNOWLEDGE HIDING WORKS IN ACADEMIA: MEDIATING ROLE OF ETHICAL CONFLICT 2024-06-30T05:53:42Pakistan Standard Time Mohsin Sarwer Sana Mukhtar Ariba Ramzan <p>This study aims to investigate impact of moral hazing on knowledge hiding over mediating role of ethical conflict. In this regard, data has been collected from academic institute of Punjab province through cross sectional research design and non-probability convenience sampling technique was used. This study used 400 questionnaires were distributed among participants and out of which 250 were received back. After disposal partially filled &amp; incomplete questionnaires, two hundred and thirty-one were left. These have been used for data analysis purpose. Data was analyzed over descriptive and inferential statistics. Demographic features were analyzed through descriptive statistics while inferential statistics has been used to draw inference over correlation &amp; regression. Results shows that the moral hazing increases knowledge hiding. Similarly ethical conflict increases chances of knowledge hiding. Moreover, ethical conflict is predicted by moral hazing. Moreover, it has been proved that ethical conflict mediates the relationship of moral hazing and knowledge hiding. From practical perspective this study will provide guidelines to the practitioners regarding role of hazing in predicting knowledge hiding. Also, this study will help to devise the policies to control knowledge hiding within the academia.</p> 2024-06-29T07:11:35Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## COMPARATIVE DATA ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES & SPORTS BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS 2024-06-30T05:53:42Pakistan Standard Time Mehwish Manzoor Muhammad Rizwan Iqra Khadim <p>The Daily performance of sports and Physical Activity for health have many of healthy benefits in our lives. Physical activity &amp; sports through puberty affect for physical fitness levels and body composition. The physical activities were compared like the flexibility, common endurance, long jump &amp; speed. Basically research revolve that the regulars have more endurances as parallel to Irregulars. This study also found that the flexibility, general endurance &amp; speed was good in regular as compare to irregular physical activity. Students who are involved in physical activities are expected to be fit physically and can continue healthy physical appearances that is basic key towards healthy lifestyle. This study is based on physical education degree college’s students of northern Punjab, Pakistan. In northern Punjab, there is 112 male colleges where 21 colleges were selected wherein 210 regular &amp; irregular participants were collected. Total number of regulars were 210 and Irregulars were 210. Mean percentage of regulars is 11.04 with SD 10.583 &amp; mean score percentage of Irregulars is 6.92 with SD 10.234. Results offer significant information to reach conclusion.</p> 2024-06-29T07:17:04Pakistan Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement##