Gomal University Journal of Research http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR <p align="justify">Gomal University Journal of Research is H.E.C recognized "Y" category multidisciplinary journal that publishes articles in Social Sciences domain.&nbsp;In order to facilitate authors and to meet the HEC's criteria, GUJR has been shifted its Editorial Proceedings online via Open Journal System since January 2019.&nbsp;</p> <div class="page">&nbsp;</div> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gomal University en-US Gomal University Journal of Research 1019-8180 PERCEPTION & AWARENESS AMONG MUSLIM CONSUMERS: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TAKAFUL & CONVENTIONAL INSURANCE http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR/article/view/1718 <p>This study examines that how knowledge and perception affect Muslim policyholders of Takaful &amp; conventional insurance businesses in developing economy. Questionnaire containing 26 items was used to gather data. The regression analysis was used and results of study reveal that awareness of Takaful holders is higher on Islamic insurance products and Islamic finance products in comparison to convention insurance policyholders. Perception of the conventional holders towards their companies is better than Takaful holders. The conventional insurance policyholders had better see products offered by their companies and companies themselves. Takaful operators will understand public awareness about Takaful and public perception of their insurance and Takaful providers it helps in policy selection for existing and future customers of Takaful and conventional insurance companies. In Pakistan, no study of such kind was conducted in the previous few years using the variables utilized in present study. Results of current investigation have practical implications for Takaful operators &amp; conventional insurance companies operating in developing countries like Pakistan in order to revist the policies in vogue.</p> Ayesha Ashraf Adil Riaz Aamir Sohail ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 40 1 01 10 NEXUSES BETWEEN LEADERSHIP DYNAMICS & EMPLOYEES’ ENGAGEMENT: MEDIATING ROLE OF SELF-EFFICACY http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR/article/view/1717 <p>The primary aim of this research is to investigate the effect of despotic and transformational leadership on employee engagement through mediating role of self-efficacy as the researchers used quantitative research methods. The population of this research includes managerial-level employees of the banking sector in Pakistan. The sample-size of the current study was 350 managerial-level employees working in the conventional banks in Pakistan. The researcher used a questionnaire to collect data from respondents. The findings indicated that despotic leadership has a significant and negative effect on employee engagement. Furthermore, the findings indicated that transformational leadership has significant and positive effect on employee engagement. Moreover, the self-efficacy mediates the relationship between despotic leadership &amp; employee engagement. Lastly, self-efficacy mediates relationship amid transformational leadership and employee engagement. The findings of study are consistent with the findings of previous research and have implications for managers and other relevant stakeholders along with certin clues for future researchers for revisiting the research issues in different contexts.</p> Mohammad Mohsen Liaqat Shrafat Ali Sair Anees Ul Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 40 1 11 20 ENHANCING EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN SAUDI ARABIA: UTILIZING GAMIFICATION FOR ENGAGING AND EFFECTIVE LEARNING http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR/article/view/1715 <p>Gamification, integration of game elements and principles into non-game contexts, has emerged as a promising educational strategy worldwide. In context of Saudi Arabian schools, known for commitment to innovation and excellence, potential of gamification to transform traditional teaching methods into engaging learning experiences is of particular interest. This comprehensive study, conducted within positivist research paradigm, and employed cross-sectional research design and quantitative survey research method. It collect data from representative sample of 565 early childhood teachers &amp; utilized statistical analyses, including ANOVA, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, &amp; MANOVA, to examine impact of gamification. Results revealed that gamification strategies could be effectively integrated, but teacher training and resource support were central. The gamification positively influenced student engagement and motivation, with variations across grade levels and types of early childhood education schools. The study underlines standing of localized research &amp; offers recommendations to enhance the successful implementation of gamification in Saudi Arabian early childhood education schools, contributing to improved educational outcomes and experiences.</p> Dalal Aldhilan Shahid Rafiq Ayesha Afzal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 40 1 21 35 INTEGRATED TALENT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND EMPLOYEES’ TURNOVER INTENTIONS IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, SOUTH-WEST, NIGERIA http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR/article/view/1707 <p>Manufacturing sector in South-West Nigeria grapples with the significant challenge related to employees' turnover intentions. Despite the adoption of talent management strategies, persisting issue remains unchanged. This study therefore examines phenomenon of employee turnover intentions within manufacturing industries in South-West Nigeria. Human resource planning, recruitment and selection, employee training and development, retention strategies, health &amp; safety management, performance appraisal are among strategies that have been examined. Employing a descriptive survey research design. Findings indicate low level of employees’ turnover intentions, high adoption rates of all examined talent management plans, significant shared &amp; relative contributions of these strategies to employees turnover intentions. This study reveals that manufacturing sector in South -West Nigeria is confronted with substantial challenge about employees' turnover intentions. Recommendations include the adoption of additional talent management strategies, regular evaluation of efficacy of integrated talent management practices, &amp; improvement of retention programmess based on identified strategies contributing significantly towards employees’ turnover intentions.</p> Dayo Idowu Akintayo Adetoun Ramat Balogun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 40 1 36 49 THE ROLE OF GAMIFIED CUSTOMER BENEFITS IN PURSUING CUSTOMERS’ LOYALTY: A MEDIATED ROLE OF CUSTOEMR ENGAGEMENT http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR/article/view/1722 <p>The social media platforms have become progressively vital in modern era as a means of interacting with consumers and as a means for marketers to focus on online social networks so as to foster loyalty of brands. Purpose of this study is to analyze the causal relationship among the characteristics of gamified customer benefits (epistemic benefits, social integrative benefits, personal integrative benefits and hedonic benefits), customer engagement and customer loyalty with respect to online brand communities on social media platforms. This study also analyzes the mediating role of customer engagement between gamified customer benefits and customer loyalty. Data is collected from 250 individuals and Smart PLS-4 is used to empirically test the hypothesis. Results reveals that epistemic benefits, social integrative benefits and hedonic benefits has positive &amp; significant impact of customer engagement &amp; customer loyalty while personal integrative benefits shows insignificant impact on customer engagement &amp; loyalty. This study shows mediating role of customer engagement amid gamified customer benefits and customer loyalty. Thus, this study may help brand managers to better understand role of gamified customer benefits with customer engagement and customer loyalty.</p> Muhammad Qasim Ali Muhammad Suhail Sharif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 40 1 50 63 ROLE OF CUSTOMER TRUST AND LOYALITY IN LINKING CSR & CUSTOMER CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN BANKING SECTOR http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR/article/view/1702 <p>It is need of the hour for management to formulate strategies and policies that will help to initiate the activities which identify the customer’s behavior towards respective organizations and choose the better off CSR activities to strive in attainment of the goals and aims of the organization. The main objective of study is to check the mediating role of the customer trust and loyalty in analyzing the impact of CSR on customer citizenship behavior. The sample size comprised of 243 respondents. The Structural Model and Correlation Matrix are used for estimation of the data. Results shows CSR is statistically significant toward Customer Citizenship Behavior and Customer loyalty directly. The CT and CL has positive and statistically significant effect on customer citizenship behavior. customer trust is competitive mediating, that is statistically significant between CSR &amp; customer citizenship behavior. Moreover, the Competitive mediating effect of Customer Loyalty between CSR and CCB is higher than Customer Trust. Consequently, both of them have competitive mediation between CSR and CCB. The results offered the significant information in reching the decision and offering some valuable recommendations.</p> Chakar Khan Lateef Ullah Tazeem Ali Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 40 1 64 78 MEDIATING ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTION ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP ECOSYSTEM AND ENTREPRENEURIAL SUCCESS http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR/article/view/1719 <p>This research examines interplay between entrepreneurial action dynamics, Entrepreneurship Ecosystem (EES) Framework, &amp; entrepreneurial success, with a focus on a sample size of 160 founders and co-founders incubated in diverse Business Incubation Centres of Southern Punjab. The research underscores its significance within the specific context of Southern Punjab by addressing a crucial research gap. The quantitative research approach is adopted, and questionnaire is adapted. For the data collection, the random sampling technique was used. The study positions the entrepreneurship ecosystem as independent variable, entrepreneurial action as mediator, and entrepreneurial success as the dependent variable. Smart PLS and SPSS were used for the data analysis. The outcomes unveil a robust and positive relationship, shedding light on the pivotal role played by entrepreneurial action. This contributes significantly to comprehension of success factors in entrepreneurial landscape, particularly within nuanced context of Southern Punjab Business Incubation Centres. Concluding, research offers nuanced suggestions for fostering more conducive environment in EES for aspiring entrepreneurs, thereby enhancing understanding of the success drivers in this distinctive ecosystem.</p> Syed Shaheer Hassan Rizvi Jawad Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 40 1 79 86 ANALYZING THE IMPACT OF FIRM-SPECIFIC FACTORS ON SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICES: UNRAVELING THE MODERATING EFFECT OF LIQUIDITY http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR/article/view/1683 <p>This study aims to investigate the relationships between characteristics of firm-specific &amp; the implementation of sustainable corporate practices, and exploring the moderating effect of liquidity to acknowledge the essential role of financial flow in shaping the sustainable approach of businesses in United States. In the proposed study secondary data of 10 listed chemical industries in US stock market has been gathered over a ten-year period of time from 2013-2022. Data is collected from annual reports, sustainability reports and CSR report of chemical industries. Firm specifics are measured with firm age and return on asset (ROA), corporate governance with CEO duality and board size whereas, sustainable practice have been examined by social and community expenses. The results provides the significant and valuable information in reaching the conclusion and making the sutiable decisions. The study’s finding indicates that there is significant impact of ROA, CEO duality and board size upon the sustainable business practices. However, firm age has negative significant effect on both firm specifics and sustainability. Similarly, the results offered certain valuable clues for future researchers.</p> Fatima Azam Farrukh Shaheen Amjad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 40 1 87 99 EXAMINING THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN EXECUTION OF POLICE REFORMS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR/article/view/1705 <p>This research investigates the intricate dynamics between media coverage and public perceptions of police reforms in Punjab, Pakistan, adopting a positivist paradigm. Grounded in quantitative approach, the study employs a cross-sectional research design with a structured survey questionnaire administered to residents of Lahore. Stratified random sampling ensures a representative sample across demographic factors. Findings reveal positive perception of media coverage, with respondents acknowledging extensive &amp; unbiased reporting on police reform initiatives. Correlation &amp; regression analyses indicate moderate to strong positive relationship between various media coverage variables and public perceptions, that are influential and diverse media coverage positively impacts attitudes, support for the reform initiatives, &amp; confidence in transparency. Challenges in media-government interaction are recognized, emphasizing limited access to information, yet perceived cooperation between media and authorities. Opportunities for media advocacy and transparency are identified, aligning with watchdog role of the media. The study contributes deep insights into the interplay between media and public perceptions of police reforms, offering valuable implications for policymakers and media practitioners seeking to enhance transparency and public engagement in the realm of the law enforcement required reforms.</p> Saleem Akhtar Syed Awais Hassan Gillani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 40 1 100 116 EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR IN-SERVICE TEACHERS: A REVIEW http://www.gujr.com.pk/index.php/GUJR/article/view/1660 <p>Education and professional development play pivotal roles in enhancing the quality of education and ensuring educators remain adept in an ever -evolving educational landscape for in-service teachers. This paper explores the multifaceted nature of opportunities and challenges faced by in-service teachers in their pursuit of continuous improvements. Emerging teaching methodologies offer in-service teachers novel ways to engage the students and enhance learning outcomes. In-service teachers face time constraints due to their demanding schedules, hindering their ability to fully engage in training &amp; professional development activities. Limited access to up-to-date teaching materials, technology, and professional development resources poses a challenge for in-service teachers striving to provide contemporary and effective education. The rapid evolution of the educational paradigms, curriculum changes &amp; pedagogical shifts can be challenging for in-service teachers to keep pace with, requiring ongoing professional development &amp; adaptability. This paper aims to shed light on delicate balance between the promising opportunities that advancements in education offer and the pragmatic challenges faced by the in-service teachers. Understanding and addressing these dynamics is vital for fostering a supportive and enriching environment for professional growth, ultimately benefiting both educators and the students they serve.</p> Sana Iqbal Akhtar Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 40 1 117 133